High precision condensation dental silicon, ZetalaborTM, was used to create moulds of the lower jaw molars from 22 immobilized African elephants (Loxodonta africana Blumenback) during radio collaring operations. These moulds were used to determine the elephant's age using Laws and Jachmann's molar aging criteria. The technique proved easy and fast and produced useful imprints in 90% of the cases.
Changes in the blood composition of elephants and buffaloes herded by helicopter and killed with succinyldicholine (Scoline) indicate stress. Death is probably due to decreased PO2 levels. The collective percentage change of eight blood constituents used to measure physiological stress was reduced from 30% in buffaloes killed with succinyldicholine alone to 22% in those killed with succinyldicholine plus hexamethonium, as opposed to 17% with herding alone and 10% with succinyldicholine alone without herding.
This study investigated whether Asian elephants can make relative quantity judgment (RQJ), a dichotomous judgment of unequal quantities ordered in magnitude. In Experiment 1, elephants were simultaneously shown two baskets with differing quantities of bait (up to 6 items). In Experiment 2, elephants were sequentially presented with baits, which could not be seen by elephants in their total quantities. The task of elephants was to choose the larger quantity in both experiments.
The degree of sociality during an animal's life changes as it modulates its behaviour to reflect different lifestages. Only a few species of mammal undergo a period of adolescence, but for these species it is probablyone of their most important life stages. It is when individuals acquire skills and develop relationships thatare of both immediate and long-term benefit to their survival and reproductive success, particularly in polygynous males in which sexual selection favours size and dominance.
Tuberculosis (TB) in elephants is a reemerging zoonotic disease caused primarily by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Current methods for screening and diagnosis rely on trunk wash culture, which has serious limitations due to low test sensitivity, slow turnaround time, and variable sample quality. Innovative and more efficient diagnostic tools are urgently needed. We describe three novel serologic techniques, the ElephantTB Stat-Pak kit, multiantigen print immunoassay, and dual-path platform VetTB test, for rapid antibody detection in elephants.