We report morphological data on brains of four African, Loxodonta africana, and three Asian elephants, Elephas maximus, and compare findings to literature. Brains exhibit a gyral pattern more complex and with more numerous gyri than in primates, humans included, and in carnivores, but less complex than in cetaceans. Cerebral frontal, parietal, temporal, limbic, and insular lobes are well developed, whereas the occipital lobe is relatively small. The insula is not as opercularized as in man. The temporal lobe is disproportionately large and expands laterally.
Recent comprehensive studies of DNA sequences support the monophyly of Afrotheria, comprising elephants, sirenians (dugongs and manatees), hyraxes, tenrecs, golden moles, aardvarks, and elephant shrews, as well as that of Paenungulata, comprising elephants, sirenians, and hyraxes. However, phylogenetic relationships among paenungulates, as well as among nonpaenungulates, have remained ambiguous.
There has been a substantial growth recently in the use of noninvasive methods to quantify hormone production, through the measurement of excreted hormones or hormone levels from saliva, sweat or hair (e.g.Wasser et al. 2000; Cook 2002; Pfeffer et al. 2002). These measures can quantify either current (e.g. Berg & Wynne-Edwards 2002; Maso et al. 2002) or past (e.g. Wasser et al. 2000; Ostner et al.
This study reports evidence of animal exploitation during the Axumite era based on a survey of architectural features, rock art and artefacts recovered from the archaeological site at Axum, northern Ethiopia. Animals and agricultural tools were identified from materials not previously examined. Pottery, rock art and animal remains revealed a range of zoological species. Agricultural implements and sacrificial vessels also provided indirect evidence of animal exploitation.
In captive Asian elephants, there is a strong need for production of female offspring to enhance reproduction, counter premature aging processes in female animals and reduce challenging management situations derived from husbandry of several bulls in one institution. Artificial insemination of flow cytometrically sex-sorted spermatozoa offers the possibility to predetermine the sex of offspring with high accuracy.