Elephant Population Count
Elephant numbers are estimated through a synchronized elephant population estimation using block count, line transect dung count method and waterhole count. This field key is an attempt to describe the methods and guidelines to be followed during the census operation.
Obstetrics, one of the oldest fields in veterinary medicine, is well described and practiced in domestic and exotic animals. However, when providing care during elephant birth or dystocia, veterinary intervention options differ greatly from any domestic species, and are far more limited due to the dimensions and specific anatomy of the elephant reproductive tract. In addition, aging of captive elephant populations and advanced age of primiparous females make active birth management increasingly important.
Renaut bodies are loosely textured, cell-sparse structures in the subperineurial space of peripheral nerves, frequently found at sites of nerve entrapment. The trunk of the elephant is a mobile, richly innervated organ, which serves for food gathering, object grasping and as a tactile organ. These functions of the trunk lead to distortion and mechanical compression of its nerves, which can therefore be expected to contain numerous Renaut bodies.
We acquired magnetic resonance images of the brain of an adult African elephant, Loxodonta africana, in the axial and parasagittal planes and produced anatomically labeled images. We quantified the volume of the whole brain (3,886.7 cm3) and of the neocortical and cerebellar gray and white matter. The white matter-to-gray matter ratio in the elephant neocortex and cerebellum is in keeping with that expected for a brain of this size.
African elephants are conventionally classified as a single species: Loxodonta africana (Blumenbach 1797). However, the discovery in 1900 of a smaller form of the African elephant, spread throughout the equatorial belt of this land, has given rise to a debate over the relevance of a second species of elephant in Africa. The twentieth century has not provided any definite answer to this question.