Author:

Surendra Varma

Abstract:

Temple elephants are individually housed with usually not more than one elephant per temple. This is the first of many unnatural conditions that the temple elephant has to deal with. Working conditions are poor. The elephants are exposed to long hours of performing unnatural behaviours like blessing and seeking alms. They are made to stand still for long periods of time on concrete, asphalt and other hard flooring and they endure a lack of exercise, space and shade in their daily working conditions. These factors make the average temple conditions the worst in managing

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Author:

Asher, R.J., Lehmann, T., 2008

Abstract:

 BACKGROUND: Afrotheria comprises a newly recognized clade of mammals with strong molecular evidence for its monophyly. In contrast, morphological data uniting its diverse constituents, including elephants, sea cows, hyraxes, aardvarks, sengis, tenrecs and golden moles, have been difficult to identify. Here, we suggest relatively late eruption of the permanent dentition as a shared characteristic of afrotherian mammals.

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Author:

O'Connell-Rodwell, C.E., 2007.

Abstract:

This review explores the mechanisms that elephants may use to send and receive seismic signals from a physical, anatomical, behavioral, and physiological perspective. The implications of the use of the vibration sense as a multimodal signal will be discussed in light of the elephant's overall fitness and survival.

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Author:

Zuba, J.R., Oosterhuis, J.E., Pessier, A.P.

Abstract:

 Foot problems potentially represent the single most important clinical disease of captive elephants.  Predisposing factors include obesity, lack of exercise, nail or sole overgrowth, improper foot care, poor hygiene, inappropriate enclosure surfaces, poor conformation, malnutrition and secondary skeletal disorders such as degenerative joint disease.  Furthermore, factors such as elephant management philosophy, disposition of elephants, facilities and competency of staff in caring for elephant feet will contribute significantly to the foot health of captive…

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Author:

Boellaard, J.W., Schlote, W., Hofer, W., 2004.

Abstract:

Lipofuscin represents an integral part of neurons and glial cells in mammals and in submammalian species. It is a special lysosomal organelle, takes part of cellular metabolism, and is a structural expression of catabolic pathways. Species-specific differences of lipofuscin indicate metabolic differences of the relevant neurons.

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