The lateral enamel lamina (LEL) is a part of the enamel organ, which is probably not involved in tooth formation. It represents, besides the "stalk" of the tooth primordium, a second interconnection between enamel organ and oral epithelium or vestibular lamina. We detected the LEL in the sheep (Ovis aries), the dolphin (Stenella attenuata), and the vole (Microtus agrestis) by light microscopy and computer-aided three-dimensional reconstruction. The LEL could be found in cap to bell stage tooth primordia, most clearly in slowly developing tooth germs.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the body condition of domesticated elephants in Sri Lanka using an index based upon visual assessment and numerical scoring of 6 criteria (temporal depression, scapula, thoracic region, flank area, lumbar vertebrae and pelvic bone) resulting in a scale of 0-11. The study was conducted between 1 April 1993 and 1 April 1994 in 13 administrative districts using 140 domesticated elephants. The mean body condition index of the elephants was 6.95±0.26 points.
The glycoproteins of the small intestines, caecum and colon of three adult elephants and one recently weaned elephant calf were examined by means of lectin histochemistry. Tissue sections were histochemically stained with peroxidase-labelled concanavalin A (Con A), asparagus-pea (TPA), peanut (PNA) and wheat-germ (WGA) lectins. Con A and TPA showed no binding activity in the intestinal tract of the adult elephants or the duodenum and ileum of the elephant calf, but did show a small amount of binding activity in the caecum and colon of the calf.
The species-specific experimental response to stressors (SSERTS) analysis was applied to a number of species under varied short and long term conditions. The measure provides quantitative data relating to the physiological responses of animals when exposed to stressors and results are presented comparing these for different methods of immobilization, euthanasia, etc. at intra- and inter-species level. It is suggested that the SSERTS measure is of greater value for measuring the responses of animals to stressors than is the measurement of the concentration of single blood variables.
From studies of the nuchal ligament from several species of ruminant (including cattle, sheep, goats, giraffe, dromedary, buffalo), equids (horses, mules, donkeys), carnivores (12 dogs of different breeds and body size) and an elephant, it was concluded that the thickness of the elastic fibres of the ligament was not directly correlated with the size.