Pathognomonic metacarpal undermining is a skeletal pathology that has been associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in bovids. Postcranial artiodactyl, perissodactyl, and carnivore skeletons were examined in major university and museum collections of North America and Europe for evidence of this and other pathology potentially attributable to tuberculosis. Among nonproboscidean mammals from pre-Holocene North America, bone lesions indicative of tuberculosis were restricted to immigrant bovids from Eurasia.
The capturing of elephants in Indonesia began in 1986 as an attempted solution to human-elephant conflict. The intent was to train "problem" elephants for use in agriculture, logging and tourism. The initial captures were conducted under the guidance of Thai mahouts and Thai koonkie elephants (trained elephants used for capture). A number of the Indonesians that were originally trained in capture techniques still work for the government forestry department (KSDA). The younger pawangs (elephant handlers) that participate in captures have learned from their…
Endotheliotropic elephant herpesvirus (elephantid herpesvirus 1; ElHV-1) is apathogenic for African elephants (Loxodonta africana), but causes fatal haemorrhagic disease in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). This is thought to occur through transmission from African elephants in places where both species are housed, such as zoological gardens. The virus has caused considerable losses in North American and European zoological gardens and thus severely impedes breeding of the endangered Asian elephant.
The use of focused ion beam (FIB) milling for preparation of sections of mineralised ivory dentine for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is investigated. Ivory dentine is essentially composed of fibrillar type-I collagen and apatite crystals. The aim of this project is to gain a clearer understanding of the relationship between the organic and inorganic components of ivory dentine using analytical TEM, in order to utilise these analytical techniques in the context of common skeletal diseases such as osteoporosis and arthritis.
An epizootic of flaccid trunk paralysis began in free-ranging Zimbabwean elephants (Loxodonta africana) on the southern shore of Lake Kariba in 1989. It involved a selective neuropathy of peripheral nerves supplying the trunk, with axon and myelin degeneration, muscle atrophy, compensatory hypertrophy, and fine endomyseal fibrosis, without inflammatory changes.