Bovine tuberculosis is an important disease that has impacts on regional and international trade. The disease can affect both social and economic stability and have a deleterious affect on species diversity. The intradermal tuberculin test has been in use for almost a century and, despite the technological advances of the last two decades, is still the only prescribed test for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in cattle. Many other species of animal, including humans, can be infected with Mycobacterium bovis.
Mycobacterium elephantis was isolated from a human respiratory specimen in April 1999, demonstrating its presence in Europe. The biochemical reaction results, antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, and sequence data for this strain are all in agreement with those of M.elephantis strains isolated previously from other continents.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the humoral immune response of Asian elephants to a primary IM vaccination with either 1 or 2 doses of a commercially available inactivated rabies virus vaccine and evaluate the anamnestic response to a 1-dose booster vaccination. ANIMALS: 16 captive Asian elephants. PROCEDURES: Elephants with no known prior rabies vaccinations were assigned into 2 treatment groups of 8 elephants; 1 group received 1 dose of vaccine, and the other group received 2 doses of vaccine 9 days apart.
In predator-free large herbivore populations, where density-dependent feedbacks occur at the limit where forage resources can no longer support the population, environmental catastrophes may play a significant role in population regulation. The potential role of fire as a stochastic mass-mortality event limiting these populations is poorly understood, so too the behavioural and physiological responses of the affected animals to this type of large disturbance event.
The pathological features of 30 cases of canine rheumatoid arthritis are described. The principle pathologic feature is a chronic symmetrical polysynovitis. The pathological features of the joints varied in severity. The synovial membrane generally showed villous hypertrophy with aggregates of lymphocytes and plasma cells. Destruction of articular cartilage and bone occurred in association with a replacement granulation tissue which often produced a pannus over the articular surface.