A 5-year-old African elephant was treated for an amputation injury of the distal trunk. It was determined that replantation was impractical and, therefore, an operation was designed and performed with the intention of recreating the prehensile tip.
Concentrations of serum testosterone, cortisol, thyroxine (free and total T4), triiodothyronine (free and total T3) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured to assess adrenal and thyroid function as they relate to testicular activity and musth in captive elephants. Blood samples were collected approximately weekly from Asian (n=8) and African (n=12) bulls at seven facilities for periods of 4 months to 9.5 years. Age ranges at study onset were 8-50 years for Asian and 10-21 years for African elephants.
A 43 yr-old female African elephant (Loxodonta africana) collapsed acutely and died. Necropsy revealed an enlarged right adrenal medulla. Histologic appearance was typical of pheochromocytoma. Special stains and electron microscopy demonstrated chromaffin granules, suggesting that the tumor was derived from catecholamine secreting cells of the adrenal medulla, and may have been functionally secretory. Serum levels of both norepinephrine and epinephrine were elevated at time of death, supporting the functional nature of the tumor.
The behaviour and serum cortisol concentrations of three captive female African elephants (Loxodonta africana) were studied to determine whether their stereotypic swaying was more prevalent before regularly scheduled events in the elephants' routine, and whether the elephants that exhibited more stereotyped swaying had lower mean serum cortisol concentrations. Behavioural data were collected during hour-long observations balanced across three periods, and during 15-min observations prior to the elephants being moved to different portions of their enclosure.
Fasciolid flukes are among the largest and best known digenetic trematodes and have considerable historical and veterinary significance. Fasciola hepatica is commonly implicated in causing disease in humans. The origins, patterns of diversification, and biogeography of fasciolids are all poorly known. We have undertaken a molecular phylogenetic study using 28S, internal transcribed spacer 1 and 2 (ITS-1 and ITS-2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA, and mitochondrial nicotinamide dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) that included seven of the nine recognized species in the family.