Elephants (Loxodonta africana) exhibit pronounced sexual dimorphism, and in this study we test the prediction that the differences in body size and sociality are significant enough to drive divergent foraging strategies and ultimately sexual segregation. Body size influences the foraging behaviour of herbivores through the differential scaling coefficients of metabolism and gut size, with larger bodied individuals being able to tolerate greater quantities of low-quality, fibrous vegetation, whilst having lower mass-specific energy requirements.
Altered behavior, anorexia and listlessness were observed in four of five adult captive female Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Two animals recovered, while two died after 2 days. The dead elephants were subjected to post mortem examination including histopathology, demonstrating fibrinonecrotic enteritis and colitis. Clostridium difficile was isolated from both dead elephants and from the feces of the two surviving affected animals, and identified by selective cultivation and PCR identification.
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a serious re-emerging disease in wildlife and zoo animals. Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been isolated from 30 captive Asian elephant (Elephas maximus within 14 herds in the United States (1994-2004) and Mycobacterium bovishas been isolated from one African elephant (Loxodonta africana) (Mikota, pers. comm.).3 There are several challenges with elephant TB diagnosis.
The article summarises three fatalities after attacks by wild animals. The first case describes a 90-year-old woman who died as a result of pneumonia after a bear fell on her and caused multiple chest fractures. The second case deals with a 76-year-old woman who was hit in the middle face by the hoof of a camel and, thereafter, died of myocardial infarction. The third case describes a 27-year-old biologist who died from severe blunt trauma after an attack of a wild living elephant.
Throughout history, wildlife has been an important source of infectious diseases transmissible to humans. Today, zoonoses with a wildlife reservoir constitute a major public health problem, affecting all continents. The importance of such zoonoses is increasingly recognized, and the need for more attention in this area is being addressed.Wildlife is normally defined as free-roaming animals (mammals, birds, fish, reptiles, and amphibians), whereas a zoonosis is an infectious disease transmittable between animals and humans.