Animals at rest and during exercise display rates of aerobic metabolism, VO2, that represent mainly the sum of mitochondrial respiration rates in various organs. The relative contributions of these organs change with physiological state such that internal organs such as liver, kidney and brain account for most of the whole-body VO2 at rest, while locomotory muscles account for >90% of the maximum rate, VO2max, during maximal aerobic exercise.
Three Sumatran elephants (Elephas maximus sumatranus) in Way Kambas National Park, Indonesia, that died of clostridiosis were infected with 1 species of nematode (Murshida falcifera), 2 trematodes (Hawkesius hawkesi and Pfenderius papillatus), and 1 larval botfly species (Cobboldia elephantis) in the gastrointestinal tract. This is the first report of H. hawkesi, P. papillatus and C. elephantis infection in Sumatran elephants in Indonesia.
Reproduction in captive elephants is low and infant mortality is high, collectively leading to possible population extinction. Artificial insemination was developed a decade ago; however, it relies on fresh-chilled semen from just a handful of bulls with inconsistent sperm quality. Artificial insemination with frozen-thawed sperm has never been described, probably, in part, due to low semen quality after cryopreservation. The present study was designed with the aim of finding a reliable semen freezing protocol.
The Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus) population in Rajaji National Park, north-west India is an important part of India's heritage, but has not been intensively studied until recently. Understanding the population dynamics is important for managers if the population is to remain viable. We used marked adult male Asian Elephants in a mark re-sight method to estimate the male segment of the population and the estimated number of female and associated young using their proportions relative to the adult male segment from classification data.
We report a molecular phylogeny for a nonavian dinosaur, extending our knowledge of trait evolution within nonavian dinosaurs into the macromolecular level of biological organization. Fragments of collagen alpha1(I) and alpha2(I) proteins extracted from fossil bones of Tyrannosaurus rex and Mammut americanum (mastodon) were analyzed with a variety of phylogenetic methods. Despite missing sequence data, the mastodon groups with elephant and the T.