1. Dental features frequently have provided data for producing and deducing mammal taxonomies and phylogeny, yet quantitative or statistical analyses for describing intricacies that characterize tooth form are wanting. 2. A method for determining fractal dimensions D that characterize enamel ridges constituting occlusal surfaces for teeth in some mammal species is presented; D quantify complexity (i.e. convolution). The method is exemplified with an analysis that was conducted on teeth from the Family Elephantidae.
Tracing the source of origin of illegal ivory will contribute to the identification of poorly managed game parks and facilitate steps taken to prevent the African elephant from becoming extinct. This study was aimed at establishing a database on the composition of ivory obtained from elephant sanctuary areas in Southern Africa. Fragments of elephant ivory from seven geographically distinct areas in South Africa, Namibia and Botswana were analysed for inorganic and organic content.
A 4-5 yr old, 250 kg female African elephant (Loxodonta africana africana) was examined because of chronic, intermittent diarrhea and poor weight gain. Abnormal clinical findings were cachexia, diarrhea, and ventral edema. Significant laboratory included low serum alkaline phosphatase concentrations, sporadic hyperbilrubinemia, hypoproteinemia/hypoalbuiminemia, intermittent hypoglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, sporadic leukocytosis, neutrophilia/neutropenia, and lymphocytosis.
This paper is based upon the teeth, body dimensions and weights of 58 male elephants (Loxodonta africana) collected in Uganda and represents an attempt to relate dental status to approximate age as revealed by a hypothetical growth curve. The elephant bears a successional series of six molars in each half of its jaw during its potential life of about 70 years. Molars 1, 2,3 and 6 can be readily identified. Molars 4 and 5 are difficult to identify, but satisfactory designations appear possible by reference to the body weight of the individual. The…
We have recently demonstrated that placental mammalian species such as pig and dog express a novel proapoptotic protease, caspase-15, whereas mouse and humans lack this enzyme. Here we investigated the evolutionary fate of the caspase-15 gene in different mammalian lineages by analyzing whole-genome shotgun sequences of 30 mammalian species for the presence of caspase-15 orthologs.