Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are a major cause of human skin and soft tissue infections in the United States. MRSA colonization and infection also have been observed in turtles, bats, seals, sheep, rabbits, rodents, cats, dogs, pigs, birds, horses, and cattle, and MRSA infections with an epidemiologic link to animal contact have been reported in veterinary personnel, pet owners, and farm animal workers.
Transmission of tuberculosis occurs with the highest frequency from patients with extensive, cavitary, pulmonary disease and positive sputum smear microscopy. In animal models of tuberculosis, the development of caseous necrosis is an important prerequisite for the formation of cavities although the immunological triggers for liquefaction are unknown. We review the relative merits and the information gleaned from the available animal models of pulmonary cavitation.
This study was undertaken to characterize the population pharmacokinetics (PK), therapeutic dose, and preferred route of administration for pyrazinamide (PZA) in elephants. Twenty-three African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants infected with or in contact with others culture positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis were dosed under treatment conditions. PZA was dosed daily at 20-30 mg/kg via oral (fasting or nonfasting state) or rectal (enema or suppository) administration. Blood samples were collected 0-24 h postdose.
The captive population of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) is not self-sustaining.2 Poor reproduction and high juvenile mortality are key factors in the decreasing population. Infection with endotheliotropic elephant herpes virus (EEHV) is one of the major causes of death in the captive population, and has resulted in the loss of at least 40 captive animals.1 EEHV has been responsible for the peracute death of two juvenile males at Zurich Zoo, Switzerland. Mortality due to peracute infection with EEHV mainly is seen in juveniles.
A 47-yr-old female Asian elephant was diagnosed with osteomyelitis of the left front digit 5, involving phalynges 1 and 2. Based on culture results of Pseudomonas and Bacteroides, enrofloxacin and metronidazole rectal suppository treatment was started. Serum levels were measured and different formulations were developed to attempt to deliver appropriate drug levels. The osteomyelitis progressed over the next 55 days. Enrofloxacin was discontinued based on culture and sensitivities (C&S) and regional limb perfusion (RLP) using amikacin started.