Changes in the blood composition of elephants and buffaloes herded by helicopter and killed with succinyldicholine (Scoline) indicate stress. Death is probably due to decreased PO2 levels. The collective percentage change of eight blood constituents used to measure physiological stress was reduced from 30% in buffaloes killed with succinyldicholine alone to 22% in those killed with succinyldicholine plus hexamethonium, as opposed to 17% with herding alone and 10% with succinyldicholine alone without herding.
The epidemiology of Fasciola jacksoni in wild and captive elephants (Elephas maximus) was studied in Assam, India. Wild elephants had an overall prevalence rate of 33.78%. Captive elephants showed prevalence rates of 42.50, 62.28 and 18.18% according to locality. The egg, miracidium and adult stages of F. jacksoni were studied by light and scanning electron microscopy, and their morphology is described. A diurnal fluctuation in faecal egg count was recorded, with average counts of 4.89, 2.47 and 2.76 during the morning, noon and evening, respectively.
The Forest Department of the State of Tamil Nadu (formerly the Madras Presidency) in India has been capturing and maintaining elephants for more than 130 years. These elephants which are mainly utilised for timber extraction work are stationed in forest camps. The elephants are maintained as mixed herds, and able to socialize both when they are in camp or when they are let out for foraging in the forests.
The measurement of change in core body temperature, and its relation to infection or inflammation, is one of the oldest and most widely recognized diagnostic tools in medicine. The use of a thermometer is considered a basic part of the initial physical exam in most species and is often followed by other more sophisticated techniques to try to isolate the source of illness. With the development of affordable heat sensitive cameras the clinician can now detect general or specific areas of abnormal tissue temperatures.
Accurate estimates of body weight can be useful in the evaluations of feeding programs, nutritional status and general health, and in calculation of dose levels (such as for anesthesia)-thus providing a valuable tool for captive elephant management. We used body measurements of 75 Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) to predict body weight. Weight, heart girth, height at the withers, body length, and foot-pad circumference were measured. All possible linear regressions of weight on one, two, three, or four body measurements were calculated.