The coagulation profile of seven Asian elephants was assessed using human reference plasma as a standard. The plasma values for the majority of the coagulation proteins evaluated, including Factors VII, IX, X, and XI, and antithrombin, were similar to that of human plasma. The average Factor VIII:C value was 1.95 units/ml, approximately twice that of the human value. Human recombinant tissue factor was effective as an activator of the tissue factor-factor VII pathway as measured by the prothrombin time assay. The elephant plama effectively corrected the clotting defect of human Factor XI-deficient plasma but failed to do so with bovine Factor Xi-deficient plasma. However, elephant plama Factor XII was not readily activated by the commercial activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) reagent formulated with a soluble activator, and consequently the activity of this protein could not be precisely determined. The average (+/-SD) APTT result of 65.6+/-9.2 sec was twice as long as that of the human reference plasma. Despite the presence of relatively high levels of fibrinogen, 4.61+/-0.49 gm/l, no fibrinolytic activity was detected in any of the elephant plasma samples using a standard fibrin plate assay system.
Zoo Biology 15, 413-423.